1.Landowners who controlled the government through inherited positions were patricians.
2.Tribunes were officials with the power to refuse Senate actions that were not in the public interest.
3. A dictator was a citizen elected as an absolute ruler.
4.Plebians increased their power over time and were first appointed to the government in the late 400s B.C.
5.Consuls ran the government, commanded the army, and could appoint dictators.
1.Rome feared that if Carthage controlled the Mediterranean, Rome would not be able to expand overseas.
2.When the Romans moved into southern Italy, Carthage feared that they would also try and take Sicily, where Carthage had markets and colonies.
3.Carthage was destroyed in 146 B.C.
4.Macedonia came under Roman "protection" in 197 B.C.
5.The gap between rich and poor continued to grow as the Roman empire expanded
1.Marc Antony helped Caesar's grandnephew, Octavian, inherit Rome and ruled with him in the Second Triumvirate.
2.Some senators, including two of Caesar's friends, formed a conspiracy and killed Caesar in the Senate on the Ides of March.
3.Together, the Five Good Emperors - Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius - ruled Rome well for almost 100 years.
4.Caesar, Licinius Crassus, and Gnaeus Pompey formed a political alliance called the First Triumvirate in 60 B.C.
5.The reign of Augustus began a period of Roman peace.
1.The government passed new laws as needed and judges reinterpreted old laws to fit new circumstances.
2.Growing trade, good transportation, a strong government, revised laws, and a strong army all helped to unify and strengthen the Roman Empire.
3.Over time, Roman religious beliefs were increasingly influenced by Greek thought.
4.Gladiators were trained fighters and their fights most often ended in death.
5.Roman engineers were masters at building roads, bridges, arenas, and public buildings.
1.Rabbis were Jewish scholars who interpreted scriptures and were learned in Jewish laws, and became the leaders of Jewish congregations.
2.Many people turned to Christianity in the times of trouble that followed the reign of the Five Good Emperors, and soon the sect became too large for the government to punish all its members.
3.Many Christians became martyrs - people put to death for their beliefs.
4.Better church organization and the Declaration of Constantine also helped establish Christianity and stabilize the church.
5.The Latin word "pope" means "father" in English. Any decisions made by the pope were equivalent to those coming directly from the disciples, who had received their authority from Jesus.
1.Inflation rose when the emperors responded to the shortage of silver by decreasing the amount of silver in each coin in order to mint more coins.
2.Today's use of the word "vandal" suggests the terror and destruction that accompanied the continuing invasions.
3.The decline of manufacturing and loss of war loot in the late Empire contributed to the fall of the empire.
4.Attila the Hun was a fierce leader who attacked Gaul in A.D 451.
5.The empire in the West did not "fall" in a single day or from a single occurrence; instead, the empire in the West gradually declined over a long period.